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Cut

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...The term ‘cut’ is used to describe the process of making a master recording (usually on a disc) from which other disc or tape copies will be manufactured. The term originated in the early days of phonograph recording when, at the same time...

Fade-In

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...The term ‘fade-in’ is used to describe the process of gradually increasing the loudness of an audio signal from silence. In music recording, a fade-in at the beginning of a song is rarely used, partly because the technique sounds artificial...

Monitor

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...The term ‘monitor’ is used most often to refer to loudspeaker systems used in live performance and in studio recording. In performance, musicians use stage monitors so that they can hear themselves; the loudspeakers, and the mix fed...

Fade-Out

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...The term ‘fade-out’ (or ‘fade’) is used to describe the process of gradually decreasing the loudness of an audio signal to silence. A fade-out is sometimes used in popular music recording as an alternative to conventional musical endings...

Sound Editing

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...During the first half of the twentieth century, most music recordings were made direct to disc: recorded simultaneously with the musical performance, the disc medium offered no direct means for altering or correcting the recorded material...

Sampler

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...A sampler is a hybrid device – both a digital sound recorder and a musical instrument – that was designed to reproduce the sounds of conventional musical instruments, thereby making studio production more economical by eliminating the need...

Mixing Desk (Mixing Console)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...A mixing desk (also referred to as a mixing console or board) is an electronic device used to amplify, combine and modify a variety of inputs – including microphones, musical instruments and prerecorded sounds – and route them...

Double-Tracking

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...Double-tracking is a recording technique in which a vocal or instrumental performance is recorded twice on separate tracks of a multitrack tape recorder. The slight variations in pitch and timing that are a result of the differences between...

Pitch Shifter

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...A pitch shifter is a digital device that can alter the pitch of an audio input without changing its overall duration. It can be used in recording to correct minor pitch problems – for example, when a singer sings a note slightly sharp...

Limiter

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...A limiter is a signal-processing device that prevents an audio signal from exceeding a predetermined dynamic level. While the limiter functions much like a compressor, its compression ratio is usually set at a fixed level between 10:1...