Popular music has been used to articulate resistance and garner support for social movements throughout the world during the 20th and 21st centuries. The 1960s saw US folk musicians including Joan Baez (pictured) and Bob Dylan emerge as icons of political dissent, supporting causes from civil rights to Vietnam War protests. Elsewhere, events such as the 1967 Encuentro de Canción Protesta in Havana and South African anti-apartheid concerts in the 70s and 80s used music as a vehicle to unite and mobilise large numbers of people in solidarity and mass resistance.
Transglobal Sounds: Music Youth and Migration discusses musical genres and movements created as expressions of social marginalisation and identity. In chapter 6, find out about the evolution of protest rap and hip hop in Portugal, stemming from stigmatization and ethnic exclusion experienced by Portuguese Afro-descendants.
Read more about the relationship between popular music and politics, and an exploration of the music of resistance and protest in Volume I of the Encyclopedia of Popular Music.