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Middle 8 (Revised 2018)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘middle 8’ is a synonym for the bridge characteristic of the ‘standard’ Tin Pan Alley ballad form. In the typical 32-bar AABA structure, each section is eight bars long; hence, section B is often called the ‘middle 8...

Song Form

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Introduction ’song form’ is a composite term denoting those characteristics of musical form that are particular to song. The formal schemes and processes to be found in popular songs are multifarious. This entry covers the more...

Songsheet Covers

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...When nineteenth-century ballads, ‘heart songs’ and dance tunes were published with music for home entertainment, the 14” × 8” (35 cm x 20 cm) folded and folioed songsheets became increasingly popular. Songsheets had often followed the lead...

Stanza

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...A stanza is a group of lines of verse forming a definite pattern. Lyrics in popular songs are usually divided into stanzas, the most common patterns being formed through end-rhyme schemes that result most often in even-numbered groups...

Lyrics

Dave Laing

Dave Laing is the author of several books on popular music and a former editor of Music Week. Former Research Fellow at the University of Westminster where he conducted research on the music industry. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Lyrics form the text of a song, and they are accompanied by music and are sung. The importance of lyrics within a song varies greatly between genres. Where lyrics exist in dance music of many kinds, they are less important than rhythm...

Number

David Horn

David Horn was a founding editor of the journal Popular Music and a founding member of IASPM (The International Association for the Study of Popular Music). He was Director of the Institute of Popular Music at the University of Liverpool from 1988 until his retirement in 2002. Together with the blues scholar Paul Oliver he first proposed the idea of EPMOW in the 1980s, and has worked on the project since that time. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Stan Hawkins

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...A ‘number’ is an item (song, dance, instrumental) in a program of musical entertainment, a musical compilation or the repertoire of one or more musicians. The term appears to derive from two related practises of numbering individual pieces...

Standard

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Rappingballads (Tin Pan AlleyA standard is a song or tune widely regarded, by the public and by musicians, as having an assured place in the repertoire by virtue of its longevity and quality. ‘Evergreen’ is almost synonymous, but it does...

Song (Revised 2018)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘song’ refers to a category of musical production characterized by the importance of vocalization. The vocal may stand alone or be accompanied by non-vocal (for example, instrumental) sounds; it may be sung solo or by a group...

Songwriter (Revised 2018)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...A songwriter is a person who, alone or in collaboration with others, invents a song and preserves its basic features by writing them down. Although at first glance the definition might seem straightforward, its application depends crucially...

Song Collecting

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Introduction Before the introduction of recording equipment in the early twentieth century, the songs of traditional performers and folk singers could be collected only through direct notation from live performance ‘in...