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Lick

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘lick,’ ensconced in jazz parlance since the early 1930s, refers to a melodic fragment, gesture, phrase, formula, idea or motif used in improvisation. Most probably, the term is derived from the colloquial meaning of ‘a blow...

Pitch

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘pitch’ refers to that aspect of a sound that is determined by the rate of vibrations producing it and that is denoted either in terms of absolute frequency or, more commonly, with reference to its perceived location on an axis...

Riff

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...A riff is a short repeated melodic fragment, phrase or theme, with a pronounced rhythmic character. Riffs can be played by any combination of instruments and can be spontaneously improvised or pre-composed. A riff may be repeated unchanged...

Tuning

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘tuning’ refers to: (a) the system or convention according to which pitches are determined; and (b) the manner or process of adjusting instruments to such a convention. There are two types of tuning convention: external...

Blue Note

John Shepherd

John Shepherd is Vice-Provost and Associate Vice-President (Academic) and Chancellor’s Professor of Music and Sociology at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. He was from 2007-2012 Carleton’s Dean of Graduate and Postdoctoral Affairs. Dr. Shepherd has been a member of EPMOW’s editorial board since 1990. In 2000, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in recognition of his role “as a leading architect of a post-War critical musicology.” Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘blue note’ has customarily referred to notes in blues – as well as in jazz, soul, rock and other related genres – whose perceived pitch center or fundamental is understood to be at variance with the pitches of the Western diatonic...

Hook

John Shepherd

John Shepherd is Vice-Provost and Associate Vice-President (Academic) and Chancellor’s Professor of Music and Sociology at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. He was from 2007-2012 Carleton’s Dean of Graduate and Postdoctoral Affairs. Dr. Shepherd has been a member of EPMOW’s editorial board since 1990. In 2000, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in recognition of his role “as a leading architect of a post-War critical musicology.” Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

Search for publications

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘hook’ is used to refer to that part of a song’s musical and lyrical material through which the song remains in popular memory and is instantly recognizable in popular consciousness. The elements of a hook’s musical material...

Melisma

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘melisma’ refers to a string of several notes sung to one syllable. ‘Melismatic’ is usually opposed to ‘syllabic,’ the latter meaning that each note is sung to a different syllable. The words ‘melismatic’ and ‘syllabic’ are used...

Melody

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Melody/ from the Greek melos (meaning a song or the music to which a song is set) and ode (meaning an ode, song or poem), is defined as (a) a monodic tonal sequence, accompanied or unaccompanied, that is perceived as a musical statement...

Rāga

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Rāga or rāg (from the Sanskrit rāg (meaning ‘color,’ ‘mood’ ‘atmosphere’)) is an Indian melody type and form for modal composition and improvisation. The term ‘rāga’ is central to the history of Indian music and appears in early Sanskrit...

Theme

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘theme’ denotes a musical passage, typically characterized by a prominent melodic line, that, through the processes of repetition and/or variation, is established as the key musical idea by which a piece, a specific moment within...