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Voicing

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...In its strictest sense, ‘voicing’ refers to the vertical arrangement of tones in a chord. In Western art music analysis, Roman numerals are sometimes used to indicate the type of chord. Numbers are used to indicate the lowest note and,...

Violin

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...A descendant of ancient Asian instruments such as the rebab (Arabia), sarinda (India) and the erhu (China), the violin is a small, usually wooden stringed instrument played with a bow. Its structure has remained relatively constant since...

Voice Leading

Bhesham Sharma

Bhesham Sharma

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Stan Hawkins

Stan Hawkins is Professor of Musicology at the University of Oslo, Norway, and Professor in Popular Music at the University of Agder, Norway. He is author of numerous books, including Settling the Pop Score (2002), The British Pop Dandy (2009), Prince: The Making of a Pop Music Phenomenon (co-author Sarah Niblock, 2011), and Queerness in Pop (2016). Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...‘Voice leading’ refers to the linear movement, stasis or dissolution of tones during the progression from one chord to another. Tones can move in contrary motion (voices moving away from each other), oblique motion (one or more voices...

Recorder

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...The recorder is an instrument whose ancestors date back to ancient Greek instruments, including the aulos, itself a descendant of even older Egyptian instruments. The recorder is a one-, two- or three-piece, flute-like instrument...

Fife

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...The fife is a precursor of the piccolo. It is usually made out of wood, is cylindrical and has six holes. The instrument is held in a horizontal or near-horizontal position, with the top (the end of the tube that is closed) placed just...

Cello

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

2

...Known for its deep resonant tone, the violoncello or cello is a larger version of the violin. Like the latter, the cello has four strings, is constructed of wood and has a fretless neck. The body has opposing ‘f’ holes. It is played...