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Slow Dragging

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...’slow dragging’ is a descriptor referring to a melodic line or accompaniment that consistently occurs slightly after each beat (pulse) and that contains equal accentuations of successive notes or chords, thus giving an impression...

Afterbeat

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Afterbeat‘Afterbeat’ is a term used to denote the temporal location of a musical event in measured music that occurs ‘after’ a ‘beat’ but prior to the ensuing beat. In reference to fast-tempo quadruple-meter musics, where beats 1 and 3...

Downbeat

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Downbeat’ is a term generally used to denote the first beat of a bar, as in beat ‘!’ of a 4/4 bar. In this context, the term brings to mind the downward movement of a conductor’s arm when directing measured music. At other times, downbeat...

Drive

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘drive’ relates to the rhythmic character of a jazz, rock or rock-derived accompaniment where successively sounded pulse, metrical units or points of rhythmic interest in a beat are equally highlighted through timbral, dynamic...

Second Line

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Second line rhythms are percussive patterns associated with African-American street processional music in New Orleans. In its primary sense, the term ‘second line’ refers to people who join or follow a parade or funeral march, but who...

Shuffle Rhythm

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...’shuffle rhythm’ is an accompanimental rhythm that comprises successive alternations of long onbeat notes and short offbeat notes (see Ex. 1). One 4/4 bar of shuffle rhythm contains eight notes and, consequently, shuffle rhythms...

Cross-Rhythm

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Cross-rhythm’ is a term used to denote the conflicting durational, dynamic or pitch-based accents produced through the sounding of two or more seemingly metrically independent rhythms contained in a single-voice part or in simultaneously...

Lead-in

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...A lead-in is a short, unidirectional musical line – commonly occurring at the very beginning of a musical performance – that points toward the introduction of new musical material. A lead-in occurring at the very beginning of a musical...

Phrasing

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘phrasing’ generally denotes a performance practise that involves the demarcation of musical phrases according to silent or sounded points of musical rest. In this context, a ‘musical phrase’ is a sequence of notes and rests...

Polyrhythm

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘polyrhythm’ denotes the rhythmic dissonance created by the simultaneous use of two or more dissimilar rhythms in different voice parts. In a sense, most forms of polyphonic popular music contain contrasting rhythms and therefore...