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Afterbeat

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Afterbeat‘Afterbeat’ is a term used to denote the temporal location of a musical event in measured music that occurs ‘after’ a ‘beat’ but prior to the ensuing beat. In reference to fast-tempo quadruple-meter musics, where beats 1 and 3...

Downbeat

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Downbeat’ is a term generally used to denote the first beat of a bar, as in beat ‘!’ of a 4/4 bar. In this context, the term brings to mind the downward movement of a conductor’s arm when directing measured music. At other times, downbeat...

Drive

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘drive’ relates to the rhythmic character of a jazz, rock or rock-derived accompaniment where successively sounded pulse, metrical units or points of rhythmic interest in a beat are equally highlighted through timbral, dynamic...

Second Line

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Second line rhythms are percussive patterns associated with African-American street processional music in New Orleans. In its primary sense, the term ‘second line’ refers to people who join or follow a parade or funeral march, but who...

Shuffle Rhythm

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...’shuffle rhythm’ is an accompanimental rhythm that comprises successive alternations of long onbeat notes and short offbeat notes (see Ex. 1). One 4/4 bar of shuffle rhythm contains eight notes and, consequently, shuffle rhythms...

Slow Dragging

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...’slow dragging’ is a descriptor referring to a melodic line or accompaniment that consistently occurs slightly after each beat (pulse) and that contains equal accentuations of successive notes or chords, thus giving an impression...

Cross-Rhythm

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Cross-rhythm’ is a term used to denote the conflicting durational, dynamic or pitch-based accents produced through the sounding of two or more seemingly metrically independent rhythms contained in a single-voice part or in simultaneously...

Lead-in

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...A lead-in is a short, unidirectional musical line – commonly occurring at the very beginning of a musical performance – that points toward the introduction of new musical material. A lead-in occurring at the very beginning of a musical...

Phrasing

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘phrasing’ generally denotes a performance practise that involves the demarcation of musical phrases according to silent or sounded points of musical rest. In this context, a ‘musical phrase’ is a sequence of notes and rests...

Polyrhythm

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘polyrhythm’ denotes the rhythmic dissonance created by the simultaneous use of two or more dissimilar rhythms in different voice parts. In a sense, most forms of polyphonic popular music contain contrasting rhythms and therefore...