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...Through the bop and free-jazz eras, few composers exhibited as much creative versatility as Charles Mingus. Born in Arizona in 1922, Mingus was raised in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles. When he was a youth, his mother allowed only...

Third Stream

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume VIII : Genres: North America

The Continuum International, 2012

Encyclopedia Articles

...Third Stream was the name given to an idiom that developed in the 1950s out of attempts to integrate techniques of jazz improvisation and those of classical composition. In the early to mid-1950s, many West Coast and cool jazz musicians...

Modal Jazz

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume VIII : Genres: North America

The Continuum International, 2012

Encyclopedia Articles

...Modal jazz is a form of jazz that flourished in the late 1950s and 1960s, mainly among an elite group of players based in New York, before achieving wider diffusion from circa 1970 onwards as a central technique in jazz-rock and other...

Hardbop

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume VIII : Genres: North America

The Continuum International, 2012

Encyclopedia Articles

...Hardbop was an influential jazz style that emerged in the 1950s. Growing out of 1940s bebop, it was noted for rhythmic, melodic and harmonic intensity, and the incorporation of new grooves into jazz. Hardbop contributed to and overlapped...

Jazz

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume VIII : Genres: North America

The Continuum International, 2012

Encyclopedia Articles

...Jazz emerged as a distinct musical form in the United States in the early decades of the twentieth century and is primarily of African-American origin. Its early influences are held to encompass elements of African and European music...